Characterizing elementary excitations in quantum fluids is essential to study their collective effects. We present an original angle-resolved coherent probe spectroscopy technique to study the dispersion of these excitation modes in a fluid of polaritons under resonant pumping. Thanks to the unprecedented spectral and spatial resolution, we observe directly the low-energy phononic behavior and detect the negative-energy modes, i.e., the ghost branch, of the dispersion relation. In addition, we reveal narrow spectral features precursory of dynamical instabilities due to the intrinsic out-of-equilibrium nature of the system. This technique provides the missing tool for the quantitative study of quantum hydrodynamics in polariton fluids.